SP-45 Heaving Bedrock Hazards Mitigation and Land-Use Policy: Front Range Piedmont, Colorado


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Citation: Noe, David C. “SP-45 Heaving-Bedrock Hazards, Mitigation, and Land-Use Policy: Front Range Piedmont, Colorado.” Land-use. Special Publication. Denver, CO: Colorado Geological Survey, Department of Natural Resources, 1997.


A reprinted article from “Environmental Geosciences,” Vol. 4, No. 2, which defines heaving bedrock as a distinct geologic hazard and describes the technical and policy advances made in recent years to promote the understanding and effective mitigation of the problem. 11 pages. Digital PDF download. SP-45D

From the Abstract:
Heaving bedrock is a geological hazard that is related to expansive soils, but it is more complex in terms of its uplift morphologies, deformation mechanisms, and regional distribution. It is common along Colorado’s Front Range piedmont where steeply dipping sedimentary bedrock containing zones of expansive claystone is encountered near to the ground surface. It occurs in the Pierre Shale and other Upper Cretaceous formations. Heaving bedrock features are caused by differential swelling and/or rebound movements within the bedrock.

Heaving bedrock has caused exceptional damage to houses, roads, and utilities along the Front Range piedmont since suburban-type development began in the early 1970s. Much of this damage may be attributed to the longstanding tendency to assume that the bedrock may be treated, for site-exploration and design purposes, as an expansive soil having essentially uniform properties. This approach ignores the strong heterogeneity that is often present in the bedrock. In particular, drill-hole exploration surveys and drilled pier foundations, which are generally appropriate for expansive soil hazards, have proven to be inappropriate for recognizing and mitigating heaving-bedrock hazards. This article presents a summary of heaving bedrock as a distinct geological hazard and describes the technological and policy advances that have been made to promote understanding and effectively mitigate the problem.